Unit 4 Information technology
be addicted to沉迷
a variety of各种各样的
VR(Virtual Reality) 虚拟现实
AR(Augmented Reality) 增强现实
MR(Mixed Reality) 混合现实
be concerned with关心……
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Reading Club 2
The avatar you choose says a lot about you. The article will help you understand your choice of avatars better.
When you are online, you can be anyone or anything. You can create your own image and a new personality. These digital identities, known as avatars, are a key part of how people use the Internet to communicate and express themselves.
The first simple 2D avatars appeared in role-playing computer games in the 1980s. Yet, very few people knew that future avatars would have such a wide variety of forms and uses. By the late1990s, they had been used in web chats like instant messenger.
When people started creating their own avatars, they discovered that they were going to have the power to create new identities that did not look or act like their real selves at all. They could dress their avatars in fancy clothes, or they could try being someone of the opposite sex, and call themselves “Andy” instead of “Anna”! When Internet users realised that their avatars would be seen by many people, not just their friends, they started having more than one avatar: a sensible one for work; a friendly, good-looking one for meeting people; and a silly one for having fun. Avatars let you express yourself and they give you lots of room for creativity.
Of course, the avatar you choose says a lot about your personality. If your blog avatar is a picture of a cute cat, your message is “I like relaxing and having fun”. Well-known cartoon characters or laughing monkeys say “I’m a really funny person”. Most people create avatars that have similar features to their personalities and that look more or less like them and act like them. However, nearly all avatars are tall, young and nice-looking, so people obviously make their avatars look better than they do in real life. They also experiment with things like different hairstyles—which says a lot, perhaps, about what they want to look like.
Nowadays, avatars are everywhere. In most web chats, people choose an avatar from a selection of ready-made images, or create their own images. You can also use avatars that move around and talk when you type in your message. The avatars in online worlds can talk, walk and fly around, meet people, go shopping and attend classes.
The use of avatars has also caused a few concerns. Some users worry that they are spending so much time in virtual worlds that they are becoming afraid of meeting people in the real world. The use of several avatars can also be a risk, as people can use avatars to cheat others online. However, other users view avatars in a more positive light. They look forward to a time when their avatar will act like a real person and travel around bigger, more exciting virtual worlds.
The Internet Harms Friendships
While the Internet can bring people closer together, it can also harm friendships.
Firstly, talking online is no replacement for face-to-face Robert contact—images really cannot replace a real-life smile or hug. According to a parenting expert, Denise Daniels, communicating through a screen makes it more difficult for children to concentrate or show kindness to others. As we know, important social skills are developed through direct contact with other people. It is these skills that enable us to develop lifelong friendships.
Secondly, the Internet can make people self-centred—not thinking of anyone or anything but themselves. For example, instead of having proper conversations with their friends, some people are only concerned with their online popularity—How many “likes” did I get? How many followers do I have?—though we know that the number of “likes” or followers cannot compare to having long-term and rewarding friendships. In addition, a lot of the content posted on social media is shallow or trivial. Posts about funny cat images do not necessarily help form meaningful relationships.
Thirdly, online relationships may not be what they appear to be. Friendships are built on the basis of trust, and with online communication you can never be 100 percent sure that the people you are chatting to is being honest about who they are. Because of this, going online can be particularly dangerous for people who are easily influenced or too trusting.
In my opinion, friends should focus more on face-to-face communication, and less on online communication. This is the best way to maintain healthy relationships.
The Internet Helps Friendships
The Internet can help develop friendships in many ways.
Firstly, the Internet makes communication much more convenient. You can stay in touch with friends no matter where you are or what you are doing. Using a smartphone, a tablet or a computer, you can be in contact at home and also when you are on the move.
Secondly, the Internet has also made communication more fun. Traditional ways of communicating, like letters and phone calls, can be limiting and take time. However, you can share photos, videos, news stories and websites with your friends online. You can give a brief response to a message with an emoji or a picture. There are so many online tools you can use to be creative!
Thirdly, online communication can actually bring people closer to each other. Nowadays, your friends are just a click away. Whenever someone needs help, friends from all over the world can immediately provide useful suggestions or information. This makes friends feel loved and cared for. To me, this is a very thought-provoking argument, as it points out the benefits of online friendships. As Eileen Kennedy-Moore, an authority on the subject, points out, online friends “fill holes real-life friends can’t”.
Finally, I believe the Internet brings people closer together and makes communication with friends more convenient and interesting.
Unit 5 Humans and nature单 词
comment n.评论; 意见
crowded adj.拥挤的; 挤满人的
ecology n.生态; 生态学
shock vt.使震惊; 使使震惊;使难以置信
turn one's back(on sb/sth) 对……置之......置之不理,对……撒手不管
wave n.海浪; 波涛
escape v.&vt.逃离; 逃避
survive vi.&vt.活下来; 幸存
*float vi.浮; 漂
poetry n.诗歌; 作诗的艺术
on the edge of在……边缘;某事快要发生(尤指不好的事)
equal adj.相等的; 相同的
extent n.面积; 长度; 范围; 程度
trap vt.困住; 使陷于危险中
loss n.丧失; 死亡
duty n.职责,义务; 责任
protection n.保护; 防护
captain n.队长; 组长
base n.基地,大本营; 基础 vt.以……为基地
anxiously adv.焦虑地; 不安地
distant adj.久远的; 遥远的
honesty n.坦诚; 诚实,正直
bravery n.勇气; 勇敢的行为
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Reading Club 2
A Sea Story
About three years ago, something terrible happened to me.
That was the day when it took only six hours to break my body and soul. You think I am a very old man—but I am not. It took less than a single day to change my hair from black to white.
One day, my two brothers and I were coming back from the islands where we often risked going and got more fish than others. All at once, the sky was covered with dark clouds and in less than a minute we were in a terrible storm. A huge wave covered our boat and my younger brother fell into the sea. My elder brother put his mouth close to my ear and cried out “Moskoe-strom!” The moment I heard the word I became very frightened. I knew what he meant by that one word well enough.
With the wind and waves, we were going in the direction of the whirlpool. We were hopeless. Nothing could save us. I felt sick, as if I was falling from a mountain top in a dream. We went round and round, nearer and nearer to the horrible edge of the whirlpool. It may appear strange, but at that moment, when we were on the edge of the whirlpool, I felt calmer than when we were moving towards it. I began to think how amazing a thing it was to die in such a way, and how wonderful it was to see the power of nature. Suddenly, we went over the edge. I thought my life was over. But moment after moment passed, and I was still safe.
The boat was on the inside of the huge whirlpool and we were going round in circles at great speed. I saw clearly that there were other objects in the whirlpool—trees and barrels. After a while, I became curious about the whirlpool itself. I then made three important observations. The first, the larger the bodies were, the more rapidly they fell; the second, between two objects of equal extent, round objects fell down less rapidly; and the third, between two objects of the same size, objects shaped like a tube fell down more slowly. So I tied myself to a barrel to help me float. I tried to make my brother understand, but he was too frightened and stayed in the heavy boat. Without waiting, I jumped into the sea to try and escape.
As you can see, the reason why I’m here to tell the story is that I made the right decision. Some time after I left the boat, with my brother in it, it was pulled into the bottom of the whirlpool. Soon after that, the whirlpool became less wild. Then the sky was clear, the wind calmer, and the moon was shining. I was still tied to the barrel and the waves soon carried me to an area where the other fishermen were. In the end, a boat picked me up. I was very tired. The fishermen were very old friends, but they were unable to recognise me. When I told them my story, they did not believe it. Now I have told you, and I cannot expect you to believe me any more than the fishermen did.
Race to The Pole
On 1 June, 1910, Captain Robert Falcon Scott left London to begin his journey to Antarctica. While he was on the way to Antarctica, he received a message from the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen which said he was going south, too. Then the race to the South Pole began!
During the polar summer of 1910—1911, both teams organised food bases in preparation for their journeys the next year. Then came the total darkness of the polar winter. Scott and Amundsen waited anxiously for spring.
Amundsen was the first to leave on 8 September, 1911. He had teams of dogs pulling the sledges and all his men were on skis. Because of this, he made rapid progress. Scott left on 1 November and soon had problems. First, his two sledges broke down and then the horses began to have serious difficulties with the snow and the cold. After a while, Scott and his men had to push the sledges themselves.
Amundsen reached the Pole on 14 December, 1911 and put a Norwegian flag there. Then he prepared for the return journey. Amundsen and his team arrived safely back to their starting base on 25 January, 1912, ten days ahead of their planned schedule.
Scott finally arrived at the Pole with four team members on 17 January, 1912.
They were shocked when they saw the Norwegian flag. Scott wrote in his diary:
“Well, we have now lost the goal of our ambition and must face 800 miles of hard pushing—and goodbye to most of our dreams.”
The return journey was one of the worst in the history of exploration. The men were soon very tired and were running out of food. The weather conditions were terrible. Scott started to realise their hopeless situation:
“We are very cheerful, but what each man feels in his heart I can only guess. Putting on our shoes in the morning is getting slower and slower.”
However, on their way back they found time to lock for rocks. They carried twenty kilos of rocks all the way with them. Later, these rocks proved that at one time in the distant past, the continent cf Antarctica was covered by plants.
Then disaster came. Edgar Evans had a terrible disease and died after a bad fall. The next to go was Captain Oates, who was having great difficulty walking. Scott recorded his death:
“He said, ‘I am just going outside and may be some time.’... We knew that poor Oates was walking to his death, but though we tried to stop him, we knew that it was the act of a brave man and an English gentleman. We all hope to meet the end with a similar spirit, and certainly the end is not far.”
Scott and two of his team members carried on and got within eleven miles of one of their food bases. But then a terrible storm started and they could not leave their tent. Scott spent some of his last hours writing. He wrote a letter full of sadness to his wife Kathleen:
“I could tell you lots and lots about this journey. What stories you would have for the boy ... but what a price to pay.”
Scott’s diary also told the story of their end:
“We are getting weaker and weaker and the end can’t be far. It seems a pity, but I do not think I can write more.”
The news of Scott’s death shocked the world. Even Amundsen was moved by Scott’s death saying “Captain Scott left a record, for honesty, sincerity, for bravery, for everything that makes a man”. Scott had failed to win the race to the Pole, but the great courage shown by Scott and his men made them heroes.
admire vt.钦佩; 欣赏
put out fires灭火
justice n.公平, 公正
stage n.舞台; 阶段
honour n.荣誉; vt感到荣幸
academy n.研究院; 学会
chemical n.化学品; adj.化学的
dc spite prep.尽管;虽然
bar n.铁栅; (门、窗等的闩)
What a shame! 真遗憾!
self-evident adj.不证自明的; 显显而易见的
respect v.&n.尊敬; 敬佩
the other day不久前某一天
regard vt.认为, 看作
be regarded as被认为,被看作
engage vi.参加, 参与
design vt.计划, 设计
passionate adj.具有强烈信念的; 热爱的, 酷爱的
energetic adj.精力充沛的, 充满活力的
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Reading Club 2
in spite of尽管…(仍…);虽然;不顾
A Medical Pioneer
At the Nobel Prize Lecture on 7 December, 2015, an 84-year-old Chinese woman walked slowly on to the stage. She began to talk about the life-saving drug, artemisinin, which she had discovered with the help of her team in the 1970s. The woman was Tu Youyou, the first Chinese female scientist to be awarded a Nobel Prize for her work. A scientist who was on the Nobel Prize Committee called Hans Forssberg explained that “the discovery of artemisinin has led to the development of new drugs which have saved the lives of millions”. When thanking the Committee for the honour, Tu Youyou said, “This is not only an honour for myself, but also recognition and encouragement for all scientists in China.”
Tu Youyou was born in Zhejiang Province, China, on 30 December, 1930. She studied medicine at Peking University Health Science Centre. After graduation, she became a member of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Later, she studied Chinese medicine for two and a half years with experts in the field from whom she gained a deep knowledge about traditional practices.
In 1969, Tu Youyou was chosen to establish a team to find a cure for malaria—a disease that killed millions of people every year. Across the world, scientists had been trying to find a cure. They tested more than 240,000 chemicals with no success. However, Tu Youyou had an idea that Chinese herbs might hold the secret. She studied ancient Chinese medical literature and visited experts in traditional Chinese medicine. She researched hundreds of traditional recipes connected to anti-malarial cures. Then Tu Youyou and her team began using modern research methods to study these Chinese herbs one by one.
This was not an easy task. The reason why this was difficult was that the team had limited resources. They did not have enough staff, and the laboratory in which they worked had poor air quality. However, after hundreds of failed experiments, they eventually came across a promising chemical. It worked well in experiments on animals, but they had to know if it was safe for humans. Tu Youyou bravely volunteered to be the first human subject when they were ready to start testing and the rest of her team followed her. The test was a success.The medicine they discovered, artemisinin, has now become the world’s most effective drug for fighting malaria.
Even though Tu Youyou is not interested in fame, she has become a scientist whose work is internationally renowned. In 2019, she was selected by the BBC as one of the most influential figures of science in the 20th Century along with Albert Einstein and Alan Mathison Turing. Tu Youyou was noted for her bravery in being a scientist during a difficult time for science in China, her ability to use old wisdom and new methods to achieve her goals and the fact that her work bridged the Eastern and Western worlds, saving millions of lives. Today Tu Youyou continues to conduct research despite her age. According to Tu Youyou, “From our research experience in discovering artemisinin, we learnt the wisdom behind both Chinese and Western medicine. There is great potential for future advances if these two kinds of wisdom can be fully integrated,” she said.
The Superhero Behind Superman
The story of Christopher Reeve’s life is one that is almost impossible to imagine—from a wildly successful Hollywood career, to the horror of life-threatening injury; Reeve experienced both. Thus, not only is he known as a superhero in the Superman films, but he is also regarded as a superhero to many in real life.
Reeve was born on 25 September, 1952 in New York—the son of Franklin Reeve, a teacher and novelist, and Barbara Pitney, a journalist. He found his passion in acting and starred in his first school play at the age of eight. Although he believed he would only ever act on stage, Reeve tried out for, and was eventually given the lead role in a Superman film.
Reeve starred in four Superman films from 1978 to 1987. He realised that his roles in these films had given him the opportunity to be areal-life superman, and he soon gained a reputation for raising awareness for good causes. He visited sick children in hospitals and worked with organisations such as Save the Children, speaking out about health, education and child protection to help those most in need.
Unfortunately, in 1995 disaster struck Reeve. While horseback riding, he was thrown off his horse and broke his neck. His injuries were so severe that he had no movement or feeling in his body at all and even needed a machine to help him breathe. At first, his doctors did not believe that he would survive. During this time, Reeve felt like he had lost all hope. Having once been a healthy and successful young man to being trapped in a broken body was like a living nightmare to him. He admitted that during the early stages of living with his injury, he wished that he was dead and even thought of ending his own life. He fell into a depression which lasted for many months. It was only due to the ongoing support of his wife, family and friends that he eventually found the will to live again. For the years that followed he focused his attention on his goal of one day walking again.
不幸的是，1995年，灾难降临在里夫身上。他在骑马时从马上坠落，摔断了颈部。他的伤势非常严重，身体完全丧失了运动能力和知觉，甚至连呼吸都需要借助机器。起初，他的医生认为他无法活下来。在这段时间里，里夫觉得他失去了所有的希望。他曾经是一个健康、成功的年轻人， 现在却被困在一副受伤的身体里，这对他来说就像一个真实的噩梦。他承认，在他受伤的早期阶段， 他希望自己已经死掉，甚至想过结束自己的生命。他陷入了持续数月的抑郁状态。是因为在妻子、家人和朋友的不断支持下，他才最终找到了重新生活的意愿。在那之后的几年里，他把注意力集中在了有朝一日能再次行走这个目标上。
With a new sense of energy and commitment, Reeve undertook an intense exercise programme to help him achieve this goal. He engaged in a wide range of exercises designed to rebuild muscle, and made remarkable progress. Shortly after, he managed to return to his film career by directing, producing and even starring in films. He also wrote a biography and returned to his charity work. Reeve became a passionate and energetic advocate for people with back injuries and disabilities, raising millions of dollars in support of medical research. “What I do is based on powers we all have inside us ... and you don’t have to be a ‘superman’ to do it.” His positive attitude inspired many people who were stuck in illness. “With the progress of new medical research, I’m confident that people like me would be able to walk again one day. So you can see, I’m too busy with living to think of giving up!”
Sadly, on 10 October, 2004, Christopher Reeve passed away. He will always be remembered as a superhero—in more ways than one.