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新北师大版英语必修第二册课文翻译+单词汇总

时间:2020-12-29    点击: 次    来源:网络    作者:网校一点通 - 小 + 大


Unit 4 Information technology
单 词
Topic Talk
app n.应用程序
enable vt.使可能,使发生
convenience n.方便,便利
effect n.效应;影响
impact n.影响;作用
self-focused ad.以自我为中心的;关注自我的
addicted adj.对…着迷的;沉迷的
be addicted to沉迷
indeed adv:确实;当然
download vt.下载
recommendation n.建议,提议;推荐
super adj.极好的,了不起的
*avatar n.(网络上代表个人的)头像,虚拟替身,图标
explore vt.探究;探讨;探险
personality n.个性,性格
admit vi.&vt.承认
alarm n.闹钟

Lesson 1
image n.图像;形象
fancy adj.花哨的;别致的
trick vt.欺骗,诱骗,哄骗
identity n.身份;特征
2D(2-dimensional) ad.二维的
variety n.多样化,变化
a variety of各种各样的
instant adj.即时的;立刻的,,马上的
instant messenger即时通讯
sex n.性别
sensible adj.朴素实用的;明智的,合理的
creativity n.创造力;独创性
blog n.博客;网络日志;vt.发表博客
obviously adv.显而易见地,明显地
experiment vi&vt.做实验,进行试验;n.实验
nowadays adv.现今,现时
hairstyle n.发型,发式
selection n.供选择的同类物品;选择
type vi&vt.打;打字n.类型,种类
concern n.担忧,忧虑;wt.与……有关;使担心
virtual adj.虚拟的;模拟的
cheat vt.欺骗;欺诈
view vt.看,把……视为

Lesson 2
accommodation n.住处
subscribe vi.订阅,订购
powerful adj.效能高的;强有力的;强壮的
latest adj.最新的;最近的
reality n.现实;真实
VR(Virtual Reality) 虚拟现实
AR(Augmented Reality) 增强现实
MR(Mixed Reality) 混合现实
account/a'k aunt/n.账户
software n.计算机软件
device n.设置,装置
mobile device移动设备
ensure vt.确保,保证
material n.材料;素材
gender n.性别
press/pres/vt.按
button n.按钮
goods n.商品
favour n.恩惠;善意的行为
confirm vt.确认;证实
deliver vi.&vt.递送;传送
error n.错误;失误

Lesson 3
harm v.&n.伤害,损害
argument n.论点;论据
replace vt.取代;接替
hug n.&v.拥抱;紧抱
concentrate vi.专注,专心;集中注意力
concerned adj.关切的,关心的
be concerned with关心……
rewarding adj.有益的;有意义的
addition n.增添;添加
in addition除此之外
content n.内容
shallow adj.肤浅的,浅薄的
*trivial adj.没有什么价值的;微不足道的
basis n.基础;基点
percent n.百分比;百分数
opinion n.意见;看法;主张
focus vi.给予某物关注;n.焦点
focus on关注
maintain vt.保持;维持
smartphone n.智能手机
tablet n.平板电脑;药片;碑,牌
limiting adj.局限的,限制性的
brief adj.简洁的,简明的
*emoji n.表情符号
creative adj.创造性的
*thought-provoking adj.发人深省的,令人深思的
authority n.权威人士;专家

Writing Workshop
profile n.人物简介;传略
location n.位置;地点
optional adj.可选择的;非强制的
imaginary adj.想象的,虚构的
fantasy n.幻想作品
series n.系列
author n.作者,作家
amazing adj.了不起的;惊人的
privacy n.隐私
policy n.政策,方针

Reading Club 1
digitize vt.把…转变成数字形式,使……数字化
sailor n.水手,海员
accessible adj.易懂的;易得到的

Reading Club 2
wristband n.腕带
LESSON 1
Avatars
虚拟形象

The avatar you choose says a lot about you. The article will help you understand your choice of avatars better.
你选择的虚拟形象能透露出你的很多信息。这篇文章将帮助你更好地理解关于虚拟形象的选择。

When you are online, you can be anyone or anything. You can create your own image and a new personality. These digital identities, known as avatars, are a key part of how people use the Internet to communicate and express themselves.
当你上网时,你可以是任何人或任何事物。你可以创设自己的形象,并且拥有新的个性。这些数字身份,被称作“虚拟形象”,这是人们利用互联网进行交流和表达自己的关键部分。

The first simple 2D avatars appeared in role-playing computer games in the 1980s. Yet, very few people knew that future avatars would have such a wide variety of forms and uses. By the late1990s, they had been used in web chats like instant messenger.
二维虚拟形象最早出现在20世纪80年代的角色扮演电脑游戏中,当时,很少有人知道虚拟形象后来会有如此广泛的形式和用途。20世纪90年代末,虚拟形象被用于网络聊天,如即时通讯。

When people started creating their own avatars, they discovered that they were going to have the power to create new identities that did not look or act like their real selves at all. They could dress their avatars in fancy clothes, or they could try being someone of the opposite sex, and call themselves “Andy” instead of “Anna”! When Internet users realised that their avatars would be seen by many people, not just their friends, they started having more than one avatar: a sensible one for work; a friendly, good-looking one for meeting people; and a silly one for having fun. Avatars let you express yourself and they give you lots of room for creativity.
人们开始创设自己的虚拟形象时,他们发现自己将有能力创设一种新的身份,这种身份在相貌和行为上可以与真正的自我完全不同。他们可以给自己的虚拟形象穿上华丽的衣服,或者尝试换个性别,可以给自己取名为“安迪”,而不是“安娜”。当互联网用户意识到很多人会看到他们的虚拟形象,而不仅仅是他们的朋友时,他们开始使用不止一个虚拟形象:一个朴素实用的虚拟形象用于工作;一个友好的、好看的虚拟形象用于交友;一个傻乎乎的虚拟形象用于取乐。虚拟形象让你可以表达自己,还给你很多创造空间。

Of course, the avatar you choose says a lot about your personality. If your blog avatar is a picture of a cute cat, your message is “I like relaxing and having fun”. Well-known cartoon characters or laughing monkeys say “I’m a really funny person”. Most people create avatars that have similar features to their personalities and that look more or less like them and act like them. However, nearly all avatars are tall, young and nice-looking, so people obviously make their avatars look better than they do in real life. They also experiment with things like different hairstyles—which says a lot, perhaps, about what they want to look like.
当然,你所选择的虚拟形象会在很大程度上显露你的个性。如果你的博客头像是一只可爱的猫,你传递的信息是“我喜欢放松和享受”。知名的卡通角色或微笑的猴子传递的信息是“我是个很有趣的人”。大多数人创设的虚拟形象与他们的个性有着相似的特征,看起来或多或少像他们,在行为上也像他们。然而,几乎所有的虚拟形象都个头高挑、样貌年轻、面容较好,所以人们显然想让他们的虚拟形象看起来比现实生活中更好。人们还进行新的尝试,例如换上不同的发型,这可能从很大程度上透露了他们希望自己看起来是什么样子。

Nowadays, avatars are everywhere. In most web chats, people choose an avatar from a selection of ready-made images, or create their own images. You can also use avatars that move around and talk when you type in your message. The avatars in online worlds can talk, walk and fly around, meet people, go shopping and attend classes.
现在,虚拟形象无处不在。在大多数网络聊天中,人们都是从现成的图片中选择一个作为虚拟形象,或者创建自己的图片。当你输入信息时,你也可以让虚拟形象活动起来或说话。网络世界中的虚拟形象可以交谈、走路、飞行,还可以结识他人、购物和上课。

The use of avatars has also caused a few concerns. Some users worry that they are spending so much time in virtual worlds that they are becoming afraid of meeting people in the real world. The use of several avatars can also be a risk, as people can use avatars to cheat others online. However, other users view avatars in a more positive light. They look forward to a time when their avatar will act like a real person and travel around bigger, more exciting virtual worlds.
虚拟形象的使用也引起了一些担忧。一些用户担心他们在虚拟世界中花费了太多时间,以至于开始害怕在现实世界中与人见面。使用多个虚拟形象也可能会带来风险,因为有人可能会在网上使用虚拟形象来欺骗他人。但是,其他用户则以更为积极的态度看待虚拟形象。他们期待着有朝一日,自己的虚拟形象会像真人一样去环游更广阔、更精彩的虚拟世界。


LESSON 3

The Internet Harms Friendships
互联网对友谊有害

While the Internet can bring people closer together, it can also harm friendships.
虽然互联网可以让人们更亲近,但它也会损害友谊。

Firstly, talking online is no replacement for face-to-face Robert contact—images really cannot replace a real-life smile or hug. According to a parenting expert, Denise Daniels, communicating through a screen makes it more difficult for children to concentrate or show kindness to others. As we know, important social skills are developed through direct contact with other people. It is these skills that enable us to develop lifelong friendships.
首先,在网上聊天并不能代替面对面的交流——图片当然无法代替现实生活中的微笑或拥抱。根据育儿专家丹尼斯·丹尼尔斯的说法,通过屏幕交流会使儿童更难集中注意力或对他人表示善意。众所周知,重要的社交技能是通过直接与他人接触培养的,正是这些技能使我们发展终生的友谊。

Secondly, the Internet can make people self-centred—not thinking of anyone or anything but themselves. For example, instead of having proper conversations with their friends, some people are only concerned with their online popularity—How many “likes” did I get? How many followers do I have?—though we know that the number of “likes” or followers cannot compare to having long-term and rewarding friendships. In addition, a lot of the content posted on social media is shallow or trivial. Posts about funny cat images do not necessarily help form meaningful relationships. 
其次,互联网使人们以自我为中心,不去想除自己之外的任何人或任何事。例如,一些人不再和朋友好好地交谈了,他们只关心自己网上的人气——我得了多少个“赞”?多少人关注了我?——尽管我们知道有多少“赞”或关注者无法与拥有长期和有益的友谊相比。此外,很多发布在社交媒体上的内容都很肤浅或琐碎。在网上发布搞笑猫咪的图片并不一定会帮助我们发展有意义的关系。

Thirdly, online relationships may not be what they appear to be. Friendships are built on the basis of trust, and with online communication you can never be 100 percent sure that the people you are chatting to is being honest about who they are. Because of this, going online can be particularly dangerous for people who are easily influenced or too trusting.
第三,网络关系可能并不是它们看起来的样子。友谊建立在信任的基础上,通过线上交流,你永远不能百分之百地确信与你交谈的人是否以诚相待。因此,对于那些容易受影响或过于信任他人的人来说,上网尤其危险。

In my opinion, friends should focus more on face-to-face communication, and less on online communication. This is the best way to maintain healthy relationships.
在我看来,朋友们应该多关注面对面的交流,少进行线上交流。这是保持健康关系的最佳方式。


The Internet Helps Friendships

互联网对友谊有益

The Internet can help develop friendships in many ways.
互联网在很多方面都有助于友谊发展。

Firstly, the Internet makes communication much more convenient. You can stay in touch with friends no matter where you are or what you are doing. Using a smartphone, a tablet or a computer, you can be in contact at home and also when you are on the move.
首先,互联网使交流更加便捷。无论你在哪里,在做什么,都可以和朋友保持联系。通过使用智能手机、平板电脑或电脑,无论你在家里还是在外面都能与他人联络。

Secondly, the Internet has also made communication more fun. Traditional ways of communicating, like letters and phone calls, can be limiting and take time. However, you can share photos, videos, news stories and websites with your friends online. You can give a brief response to a message with an emoji or a picture. There are so many online tools you can use to be creative!
其次,互联网也使交流变得更加有趣。传统的沟通方式,如信件和电话,限制条件较多,而且比较耗时。而通过互联网,你可以在线与朋友共享照片、视频、新闻故事和网站。你可以用一个表情符号或一张图片简短地回复信息。你可以使用这么多的在线工具,让交流变得有创意!

Thirdly, online communication can actually bring people closer to each other. Nowadays, your friends are just a click away. Whenever someone needs help, friends from all over the world can immediately provide useful suggestions or information. This makes friends feel loved and cared for. To me, this is a very thought-provoking argument, as it points out the benefits of online friendships. As Eileen Kennedy-Moore, an authority on the subject, points out, online friends “fill holes real-life friends can’t”.
第三,在线交流实际上可以让人们更亲近。现在,只要点一下鼠标,就能找到你的朋友。无论何时有人需要帮助,来自世界各地的朋友可以立即提供有用的建议或信息。这能让朋友们感到被爱和被关心。对我来说,这非常发人深省,因为它指出了线上友谊的好处。正如艾琳·肯尼迪·摩尔所指出的,网络朋友“填补了现实生活中朋友无法填补的空白”。

Finally, I believe the Internet brings people closer together and makes communication with friends more convenient and interesting.
最后,我相信互联网能使人们更紧密地联系在一起,让与朋友的交流更加方便和有趣。


Unit 5 Humans and nature

单 词
Topic Talk
disaster n.灾难;灾祸
flood n.洪水,水灾
drought n.旱灾,干旱
hurricane n.飓风
*landslide n.滑坡;;塌方
volcanic adj.火山的;由火山作用引起的
eruption n.爆发
wildlife n.野生动植物,野生生物
comment n.评论; 意见
crowded adj.拥挤的; 挤满人的
landscape n.风景,景色
living adj.活的,活着的
weed n.野草;海藻
deer n.鹿
insect n.昆虫
whale n.鲸
dolphin n.海豚
shark n.鲨(鱼)
kangaroo n.袋鼠
eagle n.鹰
fox n.狐狸
soil n.土壤
climate n.气候
ecology n.生态; 生态学
jungle n.(热带)丛林
shock vt.使震惊; 使使震惊;使难以置信
lecture n.讲座,.讲座,讲课;演讲
overuse vt.过度使用;滥用
million n.百万
greenhouse n.温室,暖房
turn one's back(on sb/sth) 对……置之......置之不理,对……撒手不管
title n.题目,标题

Lesson 1
*whirlpool n.漩涡
wave n.海浪; 波涛
escape v.&vt.逃离; 逃避
survive vi.&vt.活下来; 幸存
*float vi.浮; 漂
file n.档案,卷宗
*descent n.下降,下落
*tidal adj.潮汐的,潮水的
poetry n.诗歌; 作诗的艺术
*mystery n.神秘事物,难以理解的事物
soul n.灵魂
frightened adj.受惊的,害怕的
horrible adj.可怕的,吓人的,令人恐惧的
edge n.边缘
on the edge of在……边缘;某事快要发生(尤指不好的事)
*barrel n.桶
curious adj.好奇的
observation n.观察;观察结果
equal adj.相等的; 相同的
extent n.面积; 长度; 范围; 程度
tube n.圆管,管子;(伦敦)地铁

Lesson 2
rescue n.&v.营救;救援
vehicle n.交通工具,车辆
trap vt.困住; 使陷于危险中
attempt n.&vt.努力,尝试,企图
interrupt vt.打断讲话
death n.死,死亡
loss n.丧失; 死亡
damage n.伤害,损伤,损害
measure vt.估量,衡量;测量
operation n.行动,活动;手术;操作
overseas adv.在海外,在外国
site n.场所,地点
process n.过程,进程
battle n.较量,竞争;斗争;战斗
duty n.职责,义务; 责任
suffering n.(肉体或精神上的))痛苦;折磨
conduct vt.实施;进行;执行;vi.&vt.t指挥
protection n.保护; 防护
lamp n.灯
nearby adv.附近
breathe vi.&vt.呼吸
breathe in吸气
dust n.灰尘;尘埃
run out用完;耗尽

Lesson 3
explorer n.探险者;勘察者
preparation n.预备,准备
*sledge n.雪橇
ski n.滑雪板;vi.滑雪
*tent n.帐篷
boot n.靴子
captain n.队长; 组长
polar adj.极地的,,地极的
base n.基地,大本营; 基础  vt.以……为基地
anxiously adv.焦虑地; 不安地
break down停止运转,出故障
ambition n.抱负,雄心;追求,夙愿
exploration n.探险;探索
cheerful adj.高兴的,兴高采烈的
prove vt.证明;证实
distant adj.久远的; 遥远的
continent n.洲,大洲;大陆
honesty n.坦诚; 诚实,正直
sincerity n.真诚,真挚,诚实
bravery n.勇气; 勇敢的行为

Writing Workshop
brochure n.小册子
shelter n.避难所
aftershock n.(地震的))余震
observe vt.观察;注意
metal n.金属

Reading Club 1
varied adj.各种各样的,形形色色的
scary adj.可怕的,恐怖的
harmless adj.无害的
skiing n.滑雪运动

Reading Club 2
originality n.独创性;创造力
disappearance n.消亡;消失
LESSON 1
A Sea Story
一个海上的故事

About three years ago, something terrible happened to me. 
大约三年前,我遭遇了一件可怕的事情。

That was the day when it took only six hours to break my body and soul. You think I am a very old man—but I am not. It took less than a single day to change my hair from black to white.
那一天,我的身体和灵魂只用了六个小时就支离破碎了。你以为我是个很老的人,但我不是。不到一天的时间,我的头发就从黑变白了。

One day, my two brothers and I were coming back from the islands where we often risked going and got more fish than others. All at once, the sky was covered with dark clouds and in less than a minute we were in a terrible storm. A huge wave covered our boat and my younger brother fell into the sea. My elder brother put his mouth close to my ear and cried out “Moskoe-strom!” The moment I heard the word I became very frightened. I knew what he meant by that one word well enough.
有一天,我和我的两个兄弟又去了我们经常去探险的岛屿,抓到了比其他人更多的鱼。返回途中,突然,天空被乌云笼罩,刹那间,我们就被卷入了可怕的风暴中。我们的船被巨浪淹没了,我弟弟掉进了海里,我哥哥把嘴贴在我耳朵上,大喊:“Moskoe风暴!”一听到这个词,我恐惧至极,就听到这一个词我就明白他的意思了。

With the wind and waves, we were going in the direction of the whirlpool. We were hopeless. Nothing could save us. I felt sick, as if I was falling from a mountain top in a dream. We went round and round, nearer and nearer to the horrible edge of the whirlpool. It may appear strange, but at that moment, when we were on the edge of the whirlpool, I felt calmer than when we were moving towards it. I began to think how amazing a thing it was to die in such a way, and how wonderful it was to see the power of nature. Suddenly, we went over the edge. I thought my life was over. But moment after moment passed, and I was still safe.
伴随着风浪,我们朝着漩涡的方向前进。我们非常无助。没有什么能救我们。我觉得恶心,好像在梦中从山顶上掉下来似的。我们一直旋转,越来越靠近那可怕的漩涡边缘。看起来可能很奇怪,但在那一刻,当我们在漩涡边缘的时候,我觉得自己比向它移动时更平静。我开始想,这样死去是多么地令人惊奇,能看到大自然的力量是多么奇妙。突然,我们越过了边缘。我以为我的生命要结束了。但时间一分一秒地过去,我仍然是安全的。

The boat was on the inside of the huge whirlpool and we were going round in circles at great speed. I saw clearly that there were other objects in the whirlpool—trees and barrels. After a while, I became curious about the whirlpool itself. I then made three important observations. The first, the larger the bodies were, the more rapidly they fell; the second, between two objects of equal extent, round objects fell down less rapidly; and the third, between two objects of the same size, objects shaped like a tube fell down more slowly. So I tied myself to a barrel to help me float. I tried to make my brother understand, but he was too frightened and stayed in the heavy boat. Without waiting, I jumped into the sea to try and escape.
船在巨大的漩涡里面,我们以极快的速度绕着圈子。我清楚地看到在漩涡里还有其他东西——树和桶。过了一会儿,我对漩涡本身产生了好奇。然后我有三个重要的发现。第一。物体越大,下落越快;第二,在两个同等面积的物体之间,圆形物体落得更慢;第三,在两个同样大小的物体之间,管状物体落得更慢。所以我把自己绑在一个桶上帮助我漂浮。我试图让我哥哥也明白,但他太害怕了,留在了那条沉重的船上。我没继续等,就跳进了海里,尝试逃走。

As you can see, the reason why I’m here to tell the story is that I made the right decision. Some time after I left the boat, with my brother in it, it was pulled into the bottom of the whirlpool. Soon after that, the whirlpool became less wild. Then the sky was clear, the wind calmer, and the moon was shining. I was still tied to the barrel and the waves soon carried me to an area where the other fishermen were. In the end, a boat picked me up. I was very tired. The fishermen were very old friends, but they were unable to recognise me. When I told them my story, they did not believe it. Now I have told you, and I cannot expect you to believe me any more than the fishermen did.

如你所见,我能在这里讲这个故事正是因为我做了正确的决定。在我离开后过了一会儿,那只载着我哥哥的船被卷入漩涡底部。没多久,漩涡就变得不那么疯狂了。然后天空放晴,风平静了下来,月亮在闪闪发光。我仍然跟木桶绑在一起,海浪很快把我带到了一个其他渔民居住的地方。最后,一条船上的人把我救了起来。我疲惫至极。那些渔夫是我的老朋友,但他们已经认不出我了。当我告诉他们我的故事时,他们并不相信。现在故事讲完了,我并不指望你能比那些渔民更相信我。


LESSON 3
Race to The Pole
奔向南极的比赛

On 1 June, 1910, Captain Robert Falcon Scott left London to begin his journey to Antarctica. While he was on the way to Antarctica, he received a message from the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen which said he was going south, too. Then the race to the South Pole began!
1910年6月1日,罗伯特·福尔肯·斯科特上校离开了伦敦,开始了去南极洲的行程。在去往南极洲的途中,他收到了挪威探险家罗尔德·阿蒙森的一封信,信中说他也要去南极洲。于是,奔向南极的赛跑就开始了!

During the polar summer of 1910—1911, both teams organised food bases in preparation for their journeys the next year. Then came the total darkness of the polar winter. Scott and Amundsen waited anxiously for spring.
在1910—1911年的极地的夏季,两支队伍都建了食品储备点,为来年的旅程做准备。极地的冬季来临,四处一片黑暗。斯科特和阿蒙森焦急地等待春天的到来。

Amundsen was the first to leave on 8 September, 1911. He had teams of dogs pulling the sledges and all his men were on skis. Because of this, he made rapid progress. Scott left on 1 November and soon had problems. First, his two sledges broke down and then the horses began to have serious difficulties with the snow and the cold. After a while, Scott and his men had to push the sledges themselves.
1911年9月8日,阿蒙森第一个动身。他用几队狗拉雪橇,所有的队员都在滑雪板上行进。因此,他进展很快。11月1日,斯科特动身,但很快就出现了问题。先是他的两辆雪橇坏了,后来马匹开始在大雪和严寒的天气下出现严重问题。过了一阵子,斯科特和他的队员不得不自己推雪橇。

Amundsen reached the Pole on 14 December, 1911 and put a Norwegian flag there. Then he prepared for the return journey. Amundsen and his team arrived safely back to their starting base on 25 January, 1912, ten days ahead of their planned schedule.
1911年12月14日,阿蒙森到达极点,在那里插上了挪威国旗。然后他准备返回。1912年1月25日,阿蒙森和他的团队提前10天安全抵达了他们出发的基地。

Scott finally arrived at the Pole with four team members on 17 January, 1912.
1912年1月17日,斯科特和四名队员终于到达了极点。

They were shocked when they saw the Norwegian flag. Scott wrote in his diary: 
当看到挪威国旗时,他们非常震惊。斯科特在日记中写道:

“Well, we have now lost the goal of our ambition and must face 800 miles of hard pushing—and goodbye to most of our dreams.”
“好吧,我们现在已经失去了我们奋斗的目标,而且必须要面对800 英里的艰苦行进——并且要跟我们大多数人的梦想说再见。”

The return journey was one of the worst in the history of exploration. The men were soon very tired and were running out of food. The weather conditions were terrible. Scott started to realise their hopeless situation:
他们的回程是探险史上最糟糕的旅程之一。队员们很快就精疲力竭,食物也快吃完了。天气非常糟糕。斯科特开始意识到他们的处境令人绝望:

“We are very cheerful, but what each man feels in his heart I can only guess. Putting on our shoes in the morning is getting slower and slower.”
“我们很高兴,但每个人内心里的感受我只能猜到。大家早上鞋子穿得越来越慢。”

However, on their way back they found time to lock for rocks. They carried twenty kilos of rocks all the way with them. Later, these rocks proved that at one time in the distant past, the continent cf Antarctica was covered by plants.
然而,在回去的路上,他们还花时间去寻找了岩石。他们一路上带着二十公斤的石头。后来,通过这些石块可以证实,在遥远的过去,南极洲曾经被植被覆盖。 

Then disaster came. Edgar Evans had a terrible disease and died after a bad fall. The next to go was Captain Oates, who was having great difficulty walking. Scott recorded his death:
然后灾难来了。埃德加·埃文斯得了一种可怕的疾病,重重地跌倒后去世了。下一个离去的是奥茨船长,他连走路都很困难。斯科特记下了他的死亡:

“He said, ‘I am just going outside and may be some time.’... We knew that poor Oates was walking to his death, but though we tried to stop him, we knew that it was the act of a brave man and an English gentleman. We all hope to meet the end with a similar spirit, and certainly the end is not far.”
“他说,‘我要出去一下,可能会待上一会儿。’我们知道可怜的奥茨正走向死亡,尽管我们曾试图阻止他,但我们都知道这是一个勇敢的人、一个英国绅士的行为。我们都希望能以同样的精神挺到最后,我们也确实快走到最后了。”

Scott and two of his team members carried on and got within eleven miles of one of their food bases. But then a terrible storm started and they could not leave their tent. Scott spent some of his last hours writing. He wrote a letter full of sadness to his wife Kathleen:
斯科特上校和两名队员继续向前,到达距离食品储备点不足11英里的地方,但随后爆发了一场可怕的风暴,他们无法离开帐篷。在他生命的最后几个小时,斯科特花时间写下一些文字。 他写了一封充满悲伤的信给妻子凯瑟琳:

“I could tell you lots and lots about this journey. What stories you would have for the boy ... but what a price to pay.”
“关于这次旅行我有太多太多的事情想告诉你。很多你愿意给孩子讲的故事……但付出了多大的代价啊。”

Scott’s diary also told the story of their end:
斯科特的日记也讲述了他们的结局:

“We are getting weaker and weaker and the end can’t be far. It seems a pity, but I do not think I can write more.”
“我们越来越虚弱,终点可能不远了。非常遗憾,但我想我无法继续写下去了。”

The news of Scott’s death shocked the world. Even Amundsen was moved by Scott’s death saying “Captain Scott left a record, for honesty, sincerity, for bravery, for everything that makes a man”. Scott had failed to win the race to the Pole, but the great courage shown by Scott and his men made them heroes.

斯科特死亡的消息震惊了全世界。甚至阿蒙森也被斯科特的离世所触动,他说:“斯科特上校将永载史册,因为他诚实、真诚、勇敢,并拥有一个男人该有的一切。”斯科特没能赢得极点比赛,但斯科特和他的队员表现出的巨大勇气使他们成为了英雄。


Unit 6 The admirable
单 词
Topic Talk
admirable adj.令人钦佩的;极其出色的
admire vt.钦佩; 欣赏
remarkable adj.不寻常的;显著的;非凡的
career n.职业,事业
put out fires灭火
cure vt..治好(疾病);治愈n.疗法
fight for...努力争取,为……斗争
justice n.公平, 公正
generation n.一代(人)
reform n.改革;改进
mankind n.人类
intelligent adj.聪敏的;有智慧的
generous adj.无私的;慷慨的;大方的
have...in mind心里已有…
*evil n.邪恶之事;祸害adj.邪恶的
creatively adv.创造性地;有创造力地
Lesson1
mosquito n.蚊子
apart adj.&adv.分开;散开
apart from...除……之外
drug/drag/n.药物,药材;毒品
effective adj.有效的,产生预期效果的
female adj.女(性)的
stage n.舞台; 阶段
award vt.授予;给予
committee n.委员会
honour n.荣誉; vt感到荣幸
recognition n.表彰;赞扬
academy n.研究院; 学会
gain v.获得,赢得,取得;受益n.好处;利益
establish vt.建立,设立
chemical n.化学品; adj.化学的
herb n.药草
literature n.文献资料;著述;文学
recipe n.处方;秘诀
limited adj.有限的
resource n.物力;资源
staff n.全体职员,员工
eventually adv.最终;终于
come across偶遇
promising adj.大有希望的
*fame n.名声,名誉
*renowned adj.著名的,有名望的
dc spite prep.尽管;虽然
wisdom n.知识,学问;智慧
potential n.潜力;可能性
advance n.发展;进步
integrate vi.&vt.t.(使)结合;(使)成为一体

Lesson 2
*Mahatma n.圣雄(印度对圣贤的称呼)
pick out挑选
independence n.独立
peaceful adj.和平的,没有暴力的
protest n.&vi.&vt.t.抗议;反对
racial adj.种族的;人种的
discrimination n.歧视
inspiring adj.鼓舞人心的
bar n.铁栅; (门、窗等的闩)
behind bars在牢里
skin n.皮肤
What a shame! 真遗憾!
further adj.更多的,进一步
march n.示威游行,抗议游行
self-evident adj.不证自明的; 显显而易见的
judge vt.评价;判断
impressive adj.令人钦佩的,给人印象深刻的
respect v.&n.尊敬; 敬佩
independent adj.独立的,自主的
the other day不久前某一天

Lesson 3
*horror n.令人惊恐的事
regard vt.认为, 看作
be regarded as被认为,被看作
novelist n.小说家
journalist n.新闻工作者
passion n.强烈的爱好,热爱;激情
opportunity n.机会;时机
reputation n.名誉;名望
awareness n.认识;意识
organization n.组织;团体;机构
strike vi.&vt.突然发生(某种不幸);突然有坏的影响;打,击
severe adj.很严重的
movement n.运动,动作,活动
*nightmare n.噩梦,梦魇
depression n.忧郁,沮丧,消沉;抑郁症
due to由于,因为
ongoing adj.继续进行的,不断发展的
commitment n.投入,忠诚,奉献;承诺
*undertake v.着手做,承担
intense adj.强烈的,剧烈的
engage vi.参加, 参与
design vt.计划, 设计
*biography n.传记
passionate adj.具有强烈信念的; 热爱的, 酷爱的
energetic adj.精力充沛的, 充满活力的
advocate n.提倡者;拥护者;鼓吹者
disability n.伤残,残障,障碍
attitude n.看法,态度

Writing Workshop
summary n.概要;摘要;总结

Reading Club 1
daring adj.勇敢的

Reading Club 2
originally adv.原先,最初
in spite of尽管…(仍…);虽然;不顾
LESSON 1
A Medical Pioneer
医学先锋

At the Nobel Prize Lecture on 7 December, 2015, an 84-year-old Chinese woman walked slowly on to the stage. She began to talk about the life-saving drug, artemisinin, which she had discovered with the help of her team in the 1970s. The woman was Tu Youyou, the first Chinese female scientist to be awarded a Nobel Prize for her work. A scientist who was on the Nobel Prize Committee called Hans Forssberg explained that “the discovery of artemisinin has led to the development of new drugs which have saved the lives of millions”. When thanking the Committee for the honour, Tu Youyou said, “This is not only an honour for myself, but also recognition and encouragement for all scientists in China.”
在2015年12月7日的诺贝尔奖颁奖典礼上,一位84岁高龄的中国老奶奶慢慢地走上领奖台。她开始介绍挽救生命的青蒿素,这是她在团队的帮助下于20世纪70年代发现的一种药。这位女 士就是屠呦呦,是中国第一位获得诺贝尔奖的女科学家。诺贝尔奖委员会的一位名叫汉斯·福斯伯格的科学家解释说:“青蒿素的发现使得新药得以开发,这些药物拯救了数百万人的生命。”屠呦呦感谢诺委会授予她如此殊荣,她说:“这不仅是授予我个人的荣誉,也是对全体中国科学家的认可和鼓励。”

Tu Youyou was born in Zhejiang Province, China, on 30 December, 1930. She studied medicine at Peking University Health Science Centre. After graduation, she became a member of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Later, she studied Chinese medicine for two and a half years with experts in the field from whom she gained a deep knowledge about traditional practices.
1930年12月30日,屠呦呦出生于中国浙江省。她曾在北京大学健康科学中心学习医学。毕业后,她成为中医研究院的一员。后来,她跟随该领域的专家学习了两年半的中医学,从中对传统医学有了深刻的了解。

In 1969, Tu Youyou was chosen to establish a team to find a cure for malaria—a disease that killed millions of people every year. Across the world, scientists had been trying to find a cure. They tested more than 240,000 chemicals with no success. However, Tu Youyou had an idea that Chinese herbs might hold the secret. She studied ancient Chinese medical literature and visited experts in traditional Chinese medicine. She researched hundreds of traditional recipes connected to anti-malarial cures. Then Tu Youyou and her team began using modern research methods to study these Chinese herbs one by one.
1969年,屠呦呦被选中组建一个团队来寻找疟疾的治疗方法,疟疾每年导致数百万人死亡。世界各地的科学家都在试图找到治疗方法。他们已经测试了超过24 万种化学物质,仍然没有成功。屠呦呦认为中药可能会起作用。她研究了古代中医的医学文献,拜访了传统中医界的专家。她研究了数百种与抗疟疾治疗有关的传统配方。随后,屠呦呦和她的团队开始采用现代的研究方法对这些中草药逐一进行研究。

This was not an easy task. The reason why this was difficult was that the team had limited resources. They did not have enough staff, and the laboratory in which they worked had poor air quality. However, after hundreds of failed experiments, they eventually came across a promising chemical. It worked well in experiments on animals, but they had to know if it was safe for humans. Tu Youyou bravely volunteered to be the first human subject when they were ready to start testing and the rest of her team followed her. The test was a success.The medicine they discovered, artemisinin, has now become the world’s most effective drug for fighting malaria.
这不是一项容易的任务,因为团队资源有限。他们没有足够的工作人员,工作的实验室空气质量很差。然而,经过数百次失败的实验,他们最终发现了一种有前景的化学物质。这种物质在动物实验中效果很好,但他们必须知道它对人类是否安全。当他们准备开始测试时,屠呦呦勇敢地志愿成为第一个人类实验对象,团队中的其他人也紧随其后。这次测试很成功。她们发现的药物青蒿素现在已经成为世界上抗击疟疾最有效的药物。

Even though Tu Youyou is not interested in fame, she has become a scientist whose work is internationally renowned. In 2019, she was selected by the BBC as one of the most influential figures of science in the 20th Century along with Albert Einstein and Alan Mathison Turing. Tu Youyou was noted for her bravery in being a scientist during a difficult time for science in China, her ability to use old wisdom and new methods to achieve her goals and the fact that her work bridged the Eastern and Western worlds, saving millions of lives. Today Tu Youyou continues to conduct research despite her age. According to Tu Youyou, “From our research experience in discovering artemisinin, we learnt the wisdom behind both Chinese and Western medicine. There is great potential for future advances if these two kinds of wisdom can be fully integrated,” she said.
尽管屠呦呦对声名不感兴趣,但她已成为一名国际知名的科学家。2019年她被英国广播公司选为20世纪最具影响力的科学人物之一,与阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦、艾伦·麦席森·图灵齐名。屠呦呦 在中国科学困难时期坚持做一名科研人员,她用古老的智慧和全新的方法实现目标,她的事业贯通了东西方世界,拯救了数百万人的生命,因此屠呦呦闻名世界。如今,虽然年事已高,屠呦呦仍然继续做研究。她说:“从发现青蒿素的研究经验中,我们学到了中医和西医背后的智慧。如果这两种智慧能够完全融合,未来将有巨大的发展潜力。”
LESSON 3
The Superhero Behind Superman
超人背后的超级英雄

The story of Christopher Reeve’s life is one that is almost impossible to imagine—from a wildly successful Hollywood career, to the horror of life-threatening injury; Reeve experienced both. Thus, not only is he known as a superhero in the Superman films, but he is also regarded as a superhero to many in real life.
克里斯托弗·里夫的一生几乎难以想象——从极其成功的好莱坞生涯,到致命伤带来的恐惧,里夫都经历过。因此,他不仅是《超人》电影中的超级英雄,在现实生活中也被许多人视为超级英雄。

Reeve was born on 25 September, 1952 in New York—the son of Franklin Reeve, a teacher and novelist, and Barbara Pitney, a journalist. He found his passion in acting and starred in his first school play at the age of eight. Although he believed he would only ever act on stage, Reeve tried out for, and was eventually given the lead role in a Superman film.
1952年9月25日,里夫在纽约出生,他的父亲是教师兼小说家富兰克林·里夫,母亲是记者芭芭拉·皮特尼。他发现自己热衷于表演,并在八岁时第一次在学校的戏剧中担任主角。尽管里夫认为自己只会在舞台上表演,但他还是尝试并最终获得了在电影《超人》中的主角角色。

Reeve starred in four Superman films from 1978 to 1987. He realised that his roles in these films had given him the opportunity to be areal-life superman, and he soon gained a reputation for raising awareness for good causes. He visited sick children in hospitals and worked with organisations such as Save the Children, speaking out about health, education and child protection to help those most in need.
从1978年到1987年,里夫主演了四部《超人》电影。他意识到自己在这些电影中的角色给了他在现实生活中成为超人的机会,他很快就因提高人们对慈善事业的认识而获得了声誉。他去看望医院的患病儿童,并与“拯救儿童”等组织合作,支持健康、教育和儿童保护等事业,帮助最需要帮助的人。

Unfortunately, in 1995 disaster struck Reeve. While horseback riding, he was thrown off his horse and broke his neck. His injuries were so severe that he had no movement or feeling in his body at all and even needed a machine to help him breathe. At first, his doctors did not believe that he would survive. During this time, Reeve felt like he had lost all hope. Having once been a healthy and successful young man to being trapped in a broken body was like a living nightmare to him. He admitted that during the early stages of living with his injury, he wished that he was dead and even thought of ending his own life. He fell into a depression which lasted for many months. It was only due to the ongoing support of his wife, family and friends that he eventually found the will to live again. For the years that followed he focused his attention on his goal of one day walking again.
不幸的是,1995年,灾难降临在里夫身上。他在骑马时从马上坠落,摔断了颈部。他的伤势非常严重,身体完全丧失了运动能力和知觉,甚至连呼吸都需要借助机器。起初,他的医生认为他无法活下来。在这段时间里,里夫觉得他失去了所有的希望。他曾经是一个健康、成功的年轻人, 现在却被困在一副受伤的身体里,这对他来说就像一个真实的噩梦。他承认,在他受伤的早期阶段, 他希望自己已经死掉,甚至想过结束自己的生命。他陷入了持续数月的抑郁状态。是因为在妻子、家人和朋友的不断支持下,他才最终找到了重新生活的意愿。在那之后的几年里,他把注意力集中在了有朝一日能再次行走这个目标上。

With a new sense of energy and commitment, Reeve undertook an intense exercise programme to help him achieve this goal. He engaged in a wide range of exercises designed to rebuild muscle, and made remarkable progress. Shortly after, he managed to return to his film career by directing, producing and even starring in films. He also wrote a biography and returned to his charity work. Reeve became a passionate and energetic advocate for people with back injuries and disabilities, raising millions of dollars in support of medical research. “What I do is based on powers we all have inside us ... and you don’t have to be a ‘superman’ to do it.” His positive attitude inspired many people who were stuck in illness. “With the progress of new medical research, I’m confident that people like me would be able to walk again one day. So you can see, I’m too busy with living to think of giving up!”
为了达成目标,里夫凭借一种新的力量和使命感,开始了高强度的运动计划。他进行了一系列旨在重建肌肉的运动,并取得了显著的进步。不久之后,他重返电影事业,从事导演和制作人工作,甚至出演了电影。他还写了一本传记,并且再度从事慈善工作。里夫成为脊背受伤和残疾人士的热情而积极的支持者,他为医学研究筹集了数百万美元的支持。“我所做的是基于我们每个人体内都拥有的力量。你不必成为‘超人’就能做到。”他积极乐观的态度鼓舞了很多疾病缠身的人。“随着新的医学研究的发展,我相信像我这样的人总有一天能再次行走。所以你可以看到, 我忙于生活,无暇考虑是否放弃!”

Sadly, on 10 October, 2004, Christopher Reeve passed away. He will always be remembered as a superhero—in more ways than one.
令人难过的是,2004年10月10日,克里斯托弗·里夫去世了。但在很多人心中,他都是一位超级英雄——不止在一个方面。

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