高中英语过去分词知识点

过去分词知识点(一)

动词的过去分词用法灵活,应用广泛,在高考试卷中,单项填空、完形填空、短文改错等诸多题型都设置了对动词过去分词的考查。本文主要讨论它的句法功能在高考单项填空中的应用。

一、过去分词作定语

1.(07上海) The Town Hall ____ in the 1800’s was the most distinguished building at that time.

A to be completed B having been completed C completed D being completed

【简析】句中的The Great Hall与complete之间是被动关系,故应选用过去分词,相当于which were completed,答案为C。

2.(06北京) There have been several new events ____ to the program for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

A add B to add C adding D added

【简析】根据句中的have been可知new events已经加入到比赛中,表示完成的动作;而且add与events又存在被动关系,答案为D。

3.(07湖南) “Things _____ never come again!” I couldn’t help talking to myself.

A lost B losing C to lose D have lost

【简析】根据语境,我们应选A,因为things与lose的关系是lose things,是动宾关系,things是被丢的。

4.The Olympic Games,____________ in 776 BC,did not include women players until 1912.[NMET97]

A.first playing B.to be first playedC.first playedD.to be first playing【简析】根据题意可知,the Olympic Games与play之间是被动关系,因此可以排除A和D,另外B表示将来的动作,也应排除,故答案为C。它可还原成一个非限制性定语从句:which was first played in 776 BC。

解题关键:动词过去分词表示的意义是被动的和完成的,单个的分词作定语常常放在被修饰词的前面,而分词短语作定语时,通常置于被修饰词的后面,其作用相当于一个定语从句。且分词所表示的动作与其所修饰的名词构成逻辑上的动宾关系。

二、过去分词作状语

5.____________ more attention,the trees could have grown better.[MET90]A.Given B.To giveC.Giving D.Having given

【简析】句子主语the trees与give之间是被动关系,故答案选A,过去分词短语Given more attention作条件状语,放于句首。

6.(07浙江) ____ by a greater demand for vegetables, farmers have built more green houses.

A Driven B Being driven C To drive D Having driven

【简析】答案选A。drive与句子主语farmers的关系是farmers被驱使,因此用driven表示被动关系。Being driven是正在被驱使,不需要强调进行时。

7.The research is so designed that once ____________ nothing can be done to change it.[NMET2002]

A.beginsB.having begun C.beginning D.begun

【简析】答案为D。once begun在句中作条件状语,它是状语从句once it is begun的省略形式,句意为:这项调查研究事先计划的如此完好,以致于一旦开始,什么也无法改变它。

8.Generally speaking, ______according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. (2003’上海)

A. when takingB. when takenC. when to takeD. when to be taken

【简析】完整的说法应是when the drug is taken according to the directions,…由于主句的主语和从句的主语相同,因此可以省略从句的主语the drug和谓语的一部分is,答案为B。当然也可以省去when。

解题关键:过去分词作状语时,它常与句子的主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系。作条件、原因、时间状语时,分词短语常位于句首;作伴随、方式、结果状语时,分词短语常位于句末。

三、过去分词作表语

9.Cleaning women in big cities usually get ____________ by the hour.[NMET98]

A.payB.payingC.paidD.to pay

10.As we joined the big crowd I got ____________ from my friends.[NMET2001]

A.separatedB.sparedC.lostD.missed

【简析】第9题答案为C,过去分词paid作系动词get的表语,类似的用法还有:get married,get beaten,get excited,get caught in等。同样,第9题答案为A,句意为:当我们走进人群中时,我和朋友们分开了。

过去分词作表语时,应注意它和现在分词的区别:现在分词常常表示特征,意为“令人……”,而过去分词则表示状态,意为“(某人)感到……”。再如:

11.I used to play ping-pong a lot in my spare time,but now I am interesting in football.[NMET97短文改错][

答案]将interesting改为interested。

解题关键:过去分词及过去分词短语作表语时,分词所表示的动作与句子的主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系;而现在分词及其短语作表语时,分词所表示的动作与句子的主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系。

四、过去分词作宾语补足语

12.The speaker raised his voice but still couldn’t make himself ____________ .[MET91]

A.hear B.to hearC.hearing D.heard

【简析】make oneself heard为固定结构,意为“使自己的声音被别人听到”,再如make oneself understood表示“把自己的意思表达清楚”,故答案为D。

13.-Good morning.Can I help you?-I’d like to have this package __________,madam.[MET89]

A.be weighed B.to be weighed C.to weigh D.weighed

【简析】have sth.done是固定结构,意为“让别人去做某事”或“让某事被别人完成”,该题表示“我想让别人称这个包裹”,因此答案为D,过去分词weighed作this package的宾语补足语。

解题关键:过去分词作宾语补足语时,常见的句式有:

1.使役动词或感官动词(have, make, see, hear, watch, notice, feel等)+宾语+过去分词。如:

Yesterday I had my bicycle repaired.

The teacher spoke so slowly so that he could make himself understood.

On my way back home, I heard my name called.

另外,have还有“遭受、遭遇”的意思。如:

Yesterday she had her wallet stolen when she was doing shopping.

2.某些动词(keep, leave, get, find)+宾语+过去分词。如:

If I get further information, I’ll keep you informed.

When I came into the classroom, I found it cleared.

3.介词with+宾语+过去分词。如:

The child was crying with the glass broken.

With all the work finished, they hurried back home for lunch.

14.The murderer was brought in,with his hands ____________ behind his back.[MET90]

A.being tied B.having tiedC.to be tied D.tied

【简析】在with复合结构中,hands与tie之间含有被动关系,因此首先排除B,另外此处tied不但表示被动,还可以表示完成,因此A、C又可排除,故答案为D。

15.The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ____________ the next year.[NMET2000]

A.carry outB.carrying outC.carried out D.to carry out

【简析】该题句式结构较为复杂,首先,先行词the plan后跟一个由that引导的定语从句;在定语从句中,关系代词that替代the plan,又充当动词see的宾语,因此该空处于宾语补足语的位置;另外,the plan与carry out之间是动宾关系,故答案为C,构成see sth.done结构。

      过去分词知识点(二)

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过去分词作状语:过去分词作状语时,说明动作发生的背景或情况,其等同于一个状语从句。vt 过去分词作状语时与主句主语构成被动关系,表示被动和完成,vi 过去分词表示状态或动作的完成。

Heated , water changes into steam .

The professor came in, followed by a group of young people .

1 作原因状语,等于as / since / because 引导从句

Moved by what she said ,we couldn’t help crying . = ( As we are moved by what she said …

2 作时间状语,等于when 引导时间从句,如果分词表示的动作与谓语的动作同时发生,可在分词前加when/ while / until 等使时间意义更明确。

When heated , water can be changed into steam .

Seen from the hill ,the park looks very beautiful .= ( When the park is seen from the hill…

3 作条件状语等于 if / whether 引导从句

Given more attention , the cabbages could have grown better .= ( If they have been given more attention ….

Compared with you , we still have a long way to go = ( If we are compared with you …

4 作方式或伴随状语

The actress came in , followed by her fans .

She sat by the window , lost in thought .

5 作让步状语

Much tired ,he still kept on working .=(Although he was tired ,) he ….

6 独立主格结构: 当分词的逻辑主语不是主句主语时,分词可以有自己独立的逻辑主语,这种结构称为独立主格结构。常用来表示伴随情况。

The boy rushed into the classroom , his face covered with sweat .

All things considered ,your article is of great value than hers .

Rewrite with proper conjunctions

Example : United we stand, divided we fall.

If we are united, we will stand, but if we are divided,we will fall.

1 Asked what had happened, he told us about it.

→When he was asked what had happened, …

2 Well known for his expert advice, he received many invitations to give lectures.

→Because he was well known for his expert advice, …

3 Given more time, we would be able to do the work much better.

If we were given more time,

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